More than 100 peer-reviewed journal articles by scholars and research teams from all over the world document the scientific knowledge about CQ. The following is a brief overview of the seminal findings across the studies on cultural intelligence.

CQ Key Research Question

What is the difference between individuals and organisations that are effective in today’s multicultural, globalised world and those that fail?

Going beyond existing notions of cultural sensitivity and awareness, CQ captures the capabilities of individuals and organisations that successfully and respectfully accomplish their objectives, whatever the cultural context.

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CQ Model

Earley and Ang built on Sternberg and Detterman’s multiple loci framework on intelligence to argue that intelligence must go beyond mere cognitive abilities. Ang and Van Dyne developed an initial nomological network of predictors and outcomes of the four key CQ capabilities:

CQ Drive (Motivational CQ): the level of a person’s interest, persistence, and confidence to function in culturally diverse settings.

CQ Knowledge (Cognitive CQ): the level of a person’s understanding about how cultures are similar and how they are different.

CQ Strategy (Meta-cognitive CQ): the degree to which a person plans for, remains aware during, and checks after multicultural interactions.

CQ Action (Behavioural CQ): the extent of a person’s flexibility and appropriate use of a broad repertoire of behaviors and skills during multicultural encounters.

The History of the Cultural Intelligence Scale
(CQs and E-CQs)


Following rigorous scale development procedures over many years, the Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS) was developed, refined, validated, and cross-validated using a series of culturally diverse samples that included executives, expats, professionals, students, and members of multicultural teams throughout the world.

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Expanded CQ Scales

The Expanded Cultural Intelligence Scale (E-CQS) provides even more nuanced feedback based on separate scales for each of thirteen sub-dimensions. Results demonstrate strong incremental, discriminant, and predictive validity of the CQS and E-CQS. The CQS and E-CQS are the basis of the CQ Self-Assessments and the CQ Multi-Rater Assessment (360°).

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A Valid System

Research demonstrates strong incremental and, discriminant validity of these scales. CQ has predictive validity above and beyond social desirability, personality, experience, and a host of other constructs. Accordingly, it’s not easy to “game” the assessment and there’s a high level of convergence between self-ratings and observer- ratings across several thousand participants., Research also demonstrates the practical utility of both self-report and observer-report versions of the CQ scales.

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Cultural Intelligence Outcomes

High-quality decision-making

Trust, cooperation, and negotiation effectiveness

Creativity and innovation

Adjustment and resistance to fatigue/burnout

Work performance (individual and team) and leadership effectiveness

Profitability and cost savings

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Research Articles

More than 100 peer-reviewed journal articles by scholars and research teams from all over the world document the scientific knowledge about CQ. Learn more through online books and articles available through our site.


Future Research

The research on cultural intelligence continues to expand across the globe. If you wish to conduct academic research aimed at publication in scholarly journals, please contact us for more information on using our copyrighted CQ scales.

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The Latest News & Info

We are continuously updating our blog with news, information and research. Check back often to learn more about what is happening in the world of CQ and how we continue working to advance our understanding of cultural intelligence.

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